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Aditya Hrdayam Again -Part 61 - The Twelve Aditya


In the last blog, we saw the concept of 'Creative' energy (Aditi) and 'Destructive' energy (Diti). These are in standard model.

Various binding energies in the standard Model caused by Higgs, Strong, electromagnetic forces are the Aditya, the derivative of Aditi, the Creative energy. The energies that manifest in Weak force field are the 'Daityas', the derivative of 'Diti' the destructive energy.

In purAnas and in the later day stories, this Creative and Destructive energy became morphed into various forms that we see now. The destructive energy of weak force-field became the 'negative' or 'evil' forces and creative energy of Higgs, Strong, Electromagnetic became the 'positive' or 'good' forces.

But in reality, the Weak force field, though destructive is a 'creative' force as it leads to various particles and processes (radioactive) that we observe today without which Universe cannot evolve. Hence the 'evil' forces are also said to be 'creative' forces and worshiped.

The Eight Aditya of RgVeda

Rgveda Mandala 10 Hymn 72 verse 8 says there are eight sons of Aditi. ("aSTau putrÀso aditer ye jÀtÀs tanvas pari" The creative energy (Aditi) manifests in the 'form' of eight sons).  These are the  energies that build the matter blocks in Standard Model.

Quark Gluon Plasma - The dead egg

All the matter in Universe is made of Pancha-Jana, as we saw in the last few posts. Quarks, anti-Quarks, electrons, anti-electrons and Neutrinos and their various flavors make the Universal matter.

Quarks don't exist independently. The Quarks exist in a 'confined' form of 'hadrons'.  When three quarks confine they are called Baryons. When two quarks confine they are the mesons.  The weak force decay of Baryons and Mesons lead to Electrons and Neutrinos.

But all the Quarks arose from what is called 'Quark-Gluon-Plasma' (QGP). According to Standard Model, at the end of Cosmic inflation epoch (When spacetime expanded), Universe got filled with this Quark-Gluon-plasma (QGP).

The QGP is the 'Dead Egg', the mrta-anda.  It has Quarks and Gluons in the form of a 'plasma' where quarks and gluons exist independently in a 'de-confined' state.

QGP is called 'Egg' (anda), because it is from this QGP that the hadrons evolved. The hadrons then lead to electrons and neutrinos through weak force decay. Thus QGP is the egg from which the Universe evolved.

QGP is 'Dead' (mrta) because the Quarks and Gluons in it exist in a state that cannot evolve.  One can also say that he particles that have 'life' and 'death' evolve out of this Egg and hence it is called 'mrta'.

QCD Binding energy - mArtAnda

So how does this 'dead egg' of QGP in which Quarks and Gluons are in a de-confined state, in which they cannot evolve further, lead to evolution of matter..?

That is caused by 'mArtAnda', the one who arises in the 'Dead Egg'.  mArtAnda means the one that which is from the dead egg (mrta anda).

According to Standard Model, the QCD Binding energy causes the Quarks and Gluons in the QGP to get confined to hadrons (baryons and mesons).  This QCD Binding energy sets of a series of evolutionary steps that leads to the Universe as we observe today.

This QCD Binding energy that causes hadronization is called the mArtAnda, as it arises from the Dead Egg/mrta-anda, the QGP.

The QCD Binding energy or mArtAnda that causes the baryons and mesons from the Quark Gluon Plasma, has 4 different energy components. They are
  1. The kinetic energy of Quarks
  2. The energy of sea quarks/virtual particles
  3. The gluon energy
  4. The energy of valence Quarks
Let's see the structure of a Hadron to understand it better.

Structure of a Hadron

A hadron (for eg a Proton) consists of the following:

1. Valence Quarks that determine the hadron being a proton, neutron or particular type of meson.
2. Sea Quarks that appear and disappear in the energy that surrounds the Valence Quarks
3. Kinetic energy of the Valence Quarks as they exhibit motion at near light speeds
4. Gluon energy out of which Sea Quarks appear and disappear all the time

The Valence Quarks of a hadron can be visualized as few effective Quarks amongst a multitude of appearing and disappearing quarks in an ocean of gluon energy. The appearing and disappearing quarks are Sea Quarks. The 'net' Quarks remaining are the Valence Quarks. Gluon energy is the energy of strong interaction that surrounds them all. The Quarks are continuously moving and hence said to possess kinetic energy.

The Chariot (Sea Quarks) and the Rider (Valence Quarks)

One way to visualize is to picture a hadron, in particular Proton ( a Deva or matter particle that exists in the day of Universe) is like Energy of Valence Quarks as a Charioteer being carried (riding)  in a 'chariot' of gluon energy. 

The Sea-Quarks appear and disappear in this gluon energy. The valence quarks are the 'net' quarks that remain in this mass of moving sea quarks that appear and disappear. Hence they are the 'Charioteer'.  

Tvasta - The chariot making gluon energy

Tvasta is the gluon energy out of which the Sea and Valence quarks appear and disappear. It is the energy of Strong Interaction (Soma). Hence it is also depicted as possessor of Soma.  

Tvasta is depicted as the 'maker' of Chariots of 'devas' (matter particles), as the gluon energy makes the sea-quarks and Valence quarks.

Aryama - The Energy of Valence Quarks

The Energy of Valence Quarks are our ancestors, our 'Pitrs'. The biological beings like us originate from organic compounds. The organic compounds originate from simple atomic elements. The atoms originate from nucleus and electron. The nucleus originate from 'hadrons' (protons and neutrons). 
The Protons and Neutrons ultimately originate from the Valence Quarks. Hence Valence Quarks are our first ancestors or the first 'Pitr'.

Aryama is called our first 'Pitr'. Aryama are the energy behind the Valence quarks of hadron.

Pusa - The energy of the Sea Quarks

The Sea Quarks are the 'Chariot' in which valence quarks are seated. The energy in the Sea Quarks is called the 'Pusan'.

Pusa means 'nourisher'.  A hadron is nourished by the Sea Quarks. Most mass of a hadron is caused by the QCD Binding energy. Most mass of the binding energy is in the energy of the Sea Quarks. Hence Pusan is the nourisher of a hadron.

Vivasvan - The Kinetic energy of Quarks

Vivas mean driving away, shining etc. It is kinetic energy (energy in motion). Vivasvat is the Kinetic energy of the Quarks.

Deva - The matter particles in the 'day' of Universe

Post this hadronization, evolution of matter forms gets started.

'Diva' is the 'Day' or 'Post dawn' of Universe.  Deva are the particles that exist during the 'Diva'. Deva are all the matter particles that formed after the 'dawn' of Universe or in the 'day' of the Universe.

Deva are the protons, neutral atoms, neutral elements, neutral compounds that exist in the Universe. The Deva are 'immortal', as they are made of particles that have mass (Higgs field interaction) and not subjected to weak force decay in any observable time period. Since they are neutral they are also not subjected to destruction due to electromagnetic interaction, as long as they remain neutral.

So how did Devas evolve from mArtAnda..?

The seven Adityas who leave behind the mArtAnda

While QCD binding energy that causes the hadronization triggered the evolution of matter, there are seven energies that carry forward this evolution further. This is depicted as seven Adityas, leaving behind the mArtAnda.

They are
  1. Energy of Quantum vacuum (QCD and QED vacuum)
  2. Quantum Fluctuation Energy
  3. The stable binding energy of the Proton that does not decay
  4. Nuclear binding energy of larger nucleus (around both Strong and Electromagnetic Interaction)
  5. Atomic/Molecular binding energy (around Electromagnetic interaction)
  6. Gravitational potential energy (around curvature of spacetime due to Higgs field interaction/mass)
  7. Gravitational binding energy (around curvature of spacetime due to energy impact)

Energy in Quantum Vacuum - Varuna

Vacuum energy is an underlying background energy, that exists in spacetime throughout the entire Universe. Whatever we call as Vacuum is filled with this background energy.

Varuna is the energy that resides in the Quantum vacuum.  Varuna is depicted as residing in 'Ocean' or 'Sea'. Even the Standard Model defines energy of Quantum Vacuum as Ocean. 

Vacuum Ocean is "a sea of continuously appearing and disappearing [pairs of] particles that manifest themselves in the apparent jostling of particles that is quite distinct from their thermal motions. These particles are ‘virtual’, as opposed to real, particles. ...At any given instant, the vacuum is full of such virtual pairs, which leave their signature behind, by affecting the energy levels of atom"

Varuna is the energy in that vacuum ocean.

Energy in Quantum Fluctuation - Mitra

A quantum fluctuation is the temporary appearance of energetic particles out of empty space, as allowed by the Uncertainty Principle. For example, a particle pair can pop out of the vacuum during a very short time interval.

The energy of the Quantum Vacuum (Varuna) along with threshold for pair production  causes pair production of electrons, neutrinos in Lepton epoch, which follows the formation of hadrons. 

The energy of the Quantum vacuum is called Varuna. The energy associated with Quantum fluctuation that leads to pair production is called Mitra.  That's why 'Mitra' is also used to denote 'friendship'.

Mitra-Varuna becomes a dvandva compound as their existence together is meaningful. mitra (pair production) happens on top of Varuna (energy of quantum vacuum).  

Just Varuna alone cannot evolve the world. It needs Mitra. Thus Varuna is like the Kshatriya, the energy provider. Mitra is the Brahmana, the entropy provider. 

Proton Binding energy - Indra

The QCD Binding energy causes hadrons to form. One of them is Proton which is the stablest of all the hadrons. All other hadrons decay due to weak force.

The binding energy of the Proton is the Indra. Indra is the 'King/rAja' of 'Deva'.  'Diva' is the 'Day' or 'Post dawn' of Universe.  Deva are the particles that exist during the 'Diva'. Deva are all the matter particles that formed after the 'dawn' of Universe. 

The 'King' of all matter in this Universe is 'Proton' as the 'protons' are the most abundant in the form of Protium. Protium or Proton is the most stable matter in earth. Its decay by Weak force does not have a fixed value as of today. It is said to be 'Immortal' as it is supposed to never 'decay' by weak force.

Nuclear Binding energy - Bhaga

Multiple Protons and Neutrons combine and form larger nucleus. When multiple protons combine, the positive charge of protons causes them to repel due to Electromagnetic interaction. But the strong force residue of protons tries to fuse them. Larger and Larger nucleus are formed balancing this fight between Strong interaction and Electromagnetic interaction.

The nucleus forming energy is called the Bhaga. Bha is the Electromagnetic interaction (illuminating). Ga is the strong interaction (strong force, Soma). Bhaga is the 'net' energy that binds the nucleus.

Atomic binding energy - SavitR

Following that the atomic binding energy that binds nucleus to electrons, forms neutral atoms and also larger elements, compounds and molecular clouds.

The energy that forms neutral atoms, elements, compounds, molecules is the SavitR. It is the energy between protons and electrons, electrons to electrons. It is the energy that resides in Electromagnetic Interaction (Apa).

It is this SavitR that makes the baryons (protons and neutrons) into nucleons (Surya) as they become the nucleus of atoms.

Gravitational potential energy - dhAtR

Larger molecular clouds possess gravitational potential energy due to spacetime curvature that they cause causing attraction of matter, heating up of molecular clouds and gravitational collapse of molecular clouds.

The gravitational potential energy that causes the gravitational attraction is the dhAtr. It is a kAma deva, an attractive force.

Gravitational binding energy - vidhAtR

Molecular clouds get heated up due to gravitational attraction. When matter get to possess energy from the heat, it counteracts gravitational attraction. When such energy is more than the gravitational binding energy, matter is thrown out of these clouds filling up different regions of spacetime. 

The energy that is required to free up from gravitational attraction is the gravitational binding energy, the vidhAtR. Since it is an energy that moves matter, it is called 'Agni'.  Agni is the energy that causes movement of matter particles.

Thus the seven Adityas help evolve from mArtAnda, in which Universe gets filled up with matter, evolves higher forms of matter including galaxies, stars, planets and living beings.   

Vishnu - The Twelfth Aditya

The property of 'mass' is caused by 'Higgs field'. The Higgs field impedes the motion of particles and creates an energy density in a region of space. This is what we perceive as 'mass' of a particle.

This property of mass is present in the pancha-jana (Quarks, Anti-quarks, electrons, anti-electrons, neutrinos) and their flavors.

As we saw earlier, all the matter is made of protons and electrons. Protons are made of Quarks. The Quarks and electrons have this property of 'mass', the energy density caused by the impediment of Higgs field. This is the twelfth Aditya called 'Uru-krama' or 'vAmana'

Tri-Vikrama, the three stepped Higgs interaction

The Higgs field interaction  of the Pancha-Jana spans across (or causes)  three generations of particles.

Those with least interaction are vAmana, the smallest. That is is neutrinos making neutrinos the lightest of particles.  But from the vAmana, the Higgs interaction with Quarks and Electrons goes in three steps causing three generations of particles.

Standard Model calls them as three generations of particles. In Quarks Up/Down are the first step or first generation, Strange/Charm are the second step or second generation, Top/Bottom are the third step or third generation. Similarly electrons are the first generation, muons, the second generation and tau lepton the third generation. 

Thus Higgs field interaction happens in three steps causing three generations. Hence Vishnu is called tri-vikrama.

Vishnu is called 'Uru-Krama', as the steps of these interactions are 'wide' or 'large'. They vary from very small mass of neutrinos to large mass of Top Quarks.

This energy density causing higgs field interaction is the twelfth Aditya, a form of creative energy (Aditi) that evolves this Universe, by taking three steps of Higgs field interaction and causing three generations of particles.

The Twelve Adityas

Summarizing all the Creative energies above, we get
  1. Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) Binding energy which has
    1. Kinetic Energy of Quarks
    2. Gluon Energy
    3. Energy of sea quarks
    4. Energy of valence quarks
  2. Atomic/Molecular binding energy (around Electromagnetic interaction)
  3. Nuclear binding energy (around both Strong and Electromagnetic Interaction)
  4. Gravitational binding energy (around curvature of spacetime due to energy impact)
  5. Gravitational potential energy (around curvature of spacetime due to Higgs field interaction/mass)
  6. Energy threshold for Pair production and annihilation out of Quantum Vaccum
  7. The Quantum vacuum (QCD and QED vacuum)
  8. The stable binding energy of the Proton that does not decay
  9. The energy of particle due to Higgs field called 'Mass'.
Correspondingly the twelve Aditya are
  1. Vivasvan  (Kinetic energy of quarks)
  2. Tvasta (Gluon energy)
  3. Pusan (Energy of Sea quarks)
  4. Aryama (Energy of valence quarks)
  5. Savitr (Energy in atomic/molecular bindings)
  6. Bhaga (Nuclear binding energy)
  7. VidhAtR (Gravitational binding energy)
  8. dhAtR (Gravitational potential energy)
  9. Mitra (Energy threshold for pair production)
  10. Varuna (Energy in Quantum vacuum)
  11. Indra (Energy in proton)
  12. Vishnu (Energy due to Higgs field/mass)